As experts in their fields, professors not only write articles and texts for their colleagues in the academic world, but some also incorporate them into the classroom as assigned or supplemental reading for their students.

However, faculty members say they do so not for quick cash, but in order to provide solid academic work to their students.

"Professors should assign readings that best meet the instructional goals of their courses, and they may well conclude that what they themselves have written on a subject best realizes that purpose," the American Association of University Professors wrote in a statement released in 2004.

"In some cases, indeed, students enroll in courses because of what they know about the professor from his or her writings, and because they hope to engage in discussion with the professor about those writings in the classroom," the statement added.

At Bowdoin, professors often write and assign their own texts because there are limited works available in their disciplines. Some professors of science and research-intensive classes develop their own lab materials or texts to specifically focus and customize their courses.

Professor of Government Christian Potholm has written three books specializing in Maine politics, including "Maine: The Dynamics of Political Change" and "This Splendid Game: Maine Campaigns and Elections (1940-2002)."

"The simple fact is that for my class, there are no books other than the ones I've written. I ended up writing these books to provide students with the information they need. 'This Splendid Game' is composed mostly of the lectures I used to give, which students can read with additional material to talk about later," said Potholm.

Professor of Archaeology James Higginbotham uses a chapter from his book "Piscinae: Artificial Fish Ponds in Roman Italy" in his introductory-level archaeology course.

"My research is directed at many facets of Roman archaeology [that] are useful to teach in class, but nothing that would make an entire text worth using for the whole semester," said Higginbotham. "I assign textbooks written by academic experts who have decided to pull together the type of material designed for undergraduates and classes."

In order to write a text or academic article, however, plenty of research and time is required. Faculty members often take advantage of summers and sabbaticals to conduct research, write, or travel.

"It is very difficult... You want to do your own research, but doing that and teaching is always a challenge, because you need to put in the time the courses really need. I did a lot of research for my book before I began teaching at Bowdoin full time," Higginbotham said.

In some cases, research and classes correlate with each other. Professors are not only able to use their books in lectures, but they can use a course's lectures to develop a text.

Tom Conlan, an associate professor of history and Asian studies, has published two books, including "In Little Need of Divine Intervention: Scrolls of Mongol Invasions of Japan." His work with Mongol scrolls originated from a seminar he taught, and he was able to combine his lectures with research on the scrolls to write the text. Furthermore, he then was able to provide greater access for students by uploading his works online.

He is now looking to write another text about Japanese history.

"I see a tremendous need in the field for a comprehensive text and overview about Japanese history before the 1600s. I'm thinking about incorporating lectures from one course, 'The Origins of Japanese Culture and Civilization,' with primary and secondary sources to make a textbook," Conlan said.

Many published faculty members do not use their texts in class. Their reasons vary. In some cases, the works simply don't fit into the curriculum or work with a course. In other cases, the professors choose to rotate in other texts as the curriculum changes.

Paul Franco, a professor of government, teaches political philosophy and has written books on G.W.F. Hegel and Michael Oakeshott. However, he does not assign them.

"What I do in my books is partly what I want my students to do on their own. There's an added authority in the texts that might inhibit the students from developing their own interpretations on the text or subject. We're really working to get the students to read the primary texts on their own and work without too much interference from outside secondary sources, which my texts tend to be," Franco said.

Whether their texts are used in class or not, professors stress the fact that their motivation for writing doesn't come from any purchasing royalties. As academic texts, the royalties are often minuscule or nonexistent.

Some professors, including Professor of Philosophy Scott Sehon, have donated their past royalties. Other professors, such as Conlan, try to photocopy excerpts or print their texts for free, but often encounter difficulties because the publisher owns the copyright.

Aurora Kurland '09, a student in Potholm's Maine politics course, thinks professors teaching their own texts can work well. Part of the Bowdoin experience, after all, involves working with renowned professors and their works.

However, if professors assign their own texts, they should assign other readings and encourage discussions, as well, she said.

"I think it could be useful. If a professor didn't explain something fully in class, you could head to his or her book and get a better understanding. Nevertheless, if the professor is too enamored with [his or her] work, then it could become a show-and-tell with [the] text, and [he or she] may not be open to hearing other opinions," Kurland said.

Overall, Conlan said that teaching at the College meshes well with his research goals.

"As a teacher, you can really see what needs to be done in the field," he said. "By being here at Bowdoin, students ask me questions, raise larger issues, and force me to think about how to address those in lectures, research, or texts."